In the 8th century b.c. a great number of habitants arrives at the region, mainly originated from Halkida (thus Halkidiki) and from Eretria. In the 5th century b.c the most important cities are: Aineia, Gigonos, Lipaxos, Potidaia, Sani, Mendi, Skioni, Aigai, Neapolis, Afitis, Olinthos, Sermili, Galipsos, Toroni, Sarti, Siggos, Piloros, Dion, Kleonai, Olofixos, Akathos, Stagira, Apollonia, Arnaia, Anthemous. Many of these represent the succession of the prehistoric settlements, which existed in the same geographical position. By the end of the 5th century b.c the most important 32 cities create under the kingdom of Olynthos, the "koinon of Halkideon" which will be dissolved in 379 b.c. by the Spartans. In 348 b.c. Philippos integrates the region into the Macedonian Kingdom. In the Hellenistic years three great cities are being established: Kassandreia (315), Ouranoupolis (315) and Antigoneia (in the middle of Kalamaria in 280 b.c.). In 168 b.c. the Romans get control of the Macedonian Kingdom and its decline begins as all the cities have come under the control mainly of the Roman merchants.